During latest Devonian to Middle Mississippian parts of the Neoacadian and Ouachita orogenies, the Appalachian Basin and parts of the Illinois Basin were filled with clastic debris derived from the westward-prograding Borden-Grainger-Price- Pocono clastic wedge. This delta complex is overlain by the widespread shallow-water Newman-Greenbrier-Slade-St. Louis-Warsaw-Salem-Harrodsburg carbonate interval across sediment-starved surfaces, comprising the Floyds Knob bed or interval. The Middle Mississippian (late Osagean; early Viséan) Floyds Knob interval is less than a meter to several meters thick and is composed of multiple zones of pelletal glauconite, finely divided glauconitic shales, glauconitic carbonates, and locally derived carbonate mud mounds. The interval occurs across most of the Borden-Grainger delta platform, delta front, prodelta, and within the starved-basin area seaward of the delta complex, which was then filled with the Fort Payne Formation. This study reports herein the first occurrence of the Floyds Knob interval within the Fort Payne Formation. Glauconite deposition in this interval apparently occurred in mildly oxic to dysoxic, sediment-starved, shallow-marine settings and is believed to represent termination of major clastic influx in more proximal parts of the Neoacadian foreland basin during lowstand conditions. Moreover, these starved-basin conditions can be correlated with delta diversion following bulge migration during flexural loading-type relaxation. During these sediment-starved, lowstand conditions, glauconite was deposited across deltaic and basinal settings in central and distal parts of the Neoacadian foreland basin, as well as in eastern parts of the present-day Illinois intracratonic basin. The cessation of deltaic clastic sedimentation permitted development of carbonate mud mounds and associated glauconitic shales on and near reactivated structures in central parts of the Fort Payne starved basin and set the stage for the widespread deposition of thick, Meramecian-Chesterian carbonates throughout the basins during succeeding subtropical and lowstand conditions. Whether less-than-a-meter or tens-of-meters thick, the Floyds Knob interval is a widespread Middle Mississippian chronostratigraphic interval in the east-central United States that reflects a change in tectonic regime, which is recorded in the shift from predominantly clastic to carbonate sedimentation across a broad region. Aside from its correlative value, the unit demonstrates consequent sedimentary responses to the interplay among tectonism, paleoclimate, and paleogeography.
|Number of pages
|Special Paper of the Geological Society of America
|Published - Aug 12 2020
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas