Millimeter-Wave Communication for Internet of Vehicles: Status, Challenges, and Perspectives

Kayhan Zrar Ghafoor, Linghe Kong, Sherali Zeadally, Ali Safaa Sadiq, Gregory Epiphaniou, Mohammad Hammoudeh, Ali Kashif Bashir, Shahid Mumtaz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

138 Scopus citations


The Internet of Vehicles has attracted a lot of attention in the automotive industry and academia recently. We are witnessing rapid advances in vehicular technologies that comprise many components, such as onboard units (OBUs) and sensors. These sensors generate a large amount of data, which can be used to inform and facilitate decision making (e.g., navigating through traffic and obstacles). One particular focus is for automotive manufacturers to enhance the communication capability of vehicles to extend their sensing range. However, the existing short-range wireless access, such as dedicated short-range communication (DSRC), and cellular communication, such as 4G, is not capable of supporting the high volume data generated by different fully connected vehicular settings. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) technology can potentially provide terabit data transfer rates among vehicles. Therefore, we present an in-depth survey of the existing research, published in the last decade, and we describe the applications of mmWave communications in vehicular communications. In particular, we focus on MAC and physical layers and discuss related issues, such as sensing-aware MAC protocol, handover algorithms, link blockage, and beamwidth size adaptation. Finally, we highlight various aspects related to smart transportation applications, and we discuss future research directions and limitations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9086821
Pages (from-to)8525-8546
Number of pages22
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 IEEE.


  • Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication
  • sensing
  • vehicular networks
  • wireless

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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