Modulating Mechanical Properties of Collagen-Lignin Composites

Jorge A. Belgodere, Syed A. Zamin, Ryan M. Kalinoski, Carlos E. Astete, Joseph C. Penrod, Katie M. Hamel, Bert C. Lynn, Jai S. Rudra, Jian Shi, Jangwook P. Jung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Three-dimensional matrices of collagen type I (Col I) are widely used in tissue engineering applications for its abundance in many tissues, bioactivity with many cell types, and excellent biocompatibility. Inspired by the structural role of lignin in a plant tissue, we found that sodium lignosulfonate (SLS) and an alkali-extracted lignin from switchgrass (SG) increased the stiffness of Col I gels. SLS and SG enhanced the stiffness of Col I gels from 52 to 670 Pa and 52 to 320 Pa, respectively, and attenuated shear-thinning properties, with the formulation of 1.8 mg/mL Col I and 5.0 mg/mL SLS or SG. In 2D cultures, the cytotoxicity of collagen-SLS to adipose-derived stromal cells was not observed and the cell viability was maintained over 7 days in 3D cultures. Collagen-SLS composites did not elicit immunogenicity when compared to SLS-only groups. Our collagen-SLS composites present a case that exploits lignins as an enhancer of mechanical properties of Col I without adverse cytotoxicity and immunogenicity for in vitro scaffolds or in vivo tissue repairs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3562-3572
Number of pages11
JournalACS Applied Bio Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 19 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 American Chemical Society.


  • extracellular matrix composite
  • physical co-assembly
  • shear-thinning
  • sodium lignosulfonate
  • stem cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials


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