Monitoring for human papillomavirus vaccine impact among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sexwith men-United States, 2012-2014

Elissa Meites, Pamina M. Gorbach, Beau Gratzer, Gitika Panicker, Martin Steinau, Tom Collins, Adam Parrish, Cody Randel, Mark McGrath, Steven Carrasco, Janell Moore, Akbar Zaidi, Jim Braxton, Peter R. Kerndt, Elizabeth R. Unger, Richard A. Crosby, Lauri E. Markowitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Background. Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; vaccination is recommended for US males, including MSM through age 26 years. We assessed evidence of HPV among vaccine-eligible MSM and transgender women to monitor vaccine impact. Methods. During 2012-2014, MSM aged 18-26 years at select clinics completed a computer-assisted self-interview regarding sexual behavior, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and vaccinations. Self-collected anal swab and oral rinse specimens were tested for HPV DNA (37 types) by L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction; serum was tested for HPV antibodies (4 types) by a multiplexed virus-like particle-based immunoglobulin G direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Among 922 vaccine-eligible participants, the mean age was 23 years, and the mean number of lifetime sex partners was 37. Among 834 without HIV infection, any anal HPV was detected in 69.4% and any oral HPV in 8.4%, yet only 8.5% had evidence of exposure to all quadrivalent vaccine types. In multivariate analysis, HPV prevalence varied significantly (P < .05) by HIV status, sexual orientation, and lifetime number of sex partners, but not by race/ethnicity. Discussions. Most young MSM lacked evidence of current or past infection with all vaccine-type HPV types, suggesting that they could benefit from vaccination. The impact of vaccination among MSM may be assessed by monitoring HPV prevalence, including in self-collected specimens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)689-696
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author 2016.


  • Epidemiological monitoring
  • Homosexuality male
  • Papillomavirus infections
  • Papillomavirus vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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