Mouse models of type 1 diabetes and their use in skeletal research

Evangelia Kalaitzoglou, John L. Fowlkes, Kathryn M. Thrailkill

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose of reviewIn this review, we describe the three primary mouse models of insulin-deficiency diabetes that have been used to study the effects of type 1 diabetes (T1D) on skeletal outcomes. These models include streptozotocin (chemically)-induced diabetes, autoimmune-mediated diabetes (the nonobese diabetes mouse), and a mutation in the insulin gene (the Akita mouse). We then describe the skeletal findings and/or skeletal phenotypes that have been delineated using these models.Recent findingsHumans with T1D have decreased bone mineral density and an increased risk for fragility fracture. Mouse models of insulin-deficiency diabetes (hereafter denoted as T1D) in many ways recapitulate these skeletal deficits. Utilizing techniques of microcomputed tomography, bone histomorphometry, biomechanical testing and fracture modeling, bone biomarker analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, mouse models of T1D have demonstrated abnormalities in bone mineralization, bone microarchitecture, osteoblast function, abnormal bone turnover, and diminished biomechanical properties of bone.SummaryMouse models have provided significant insights into the underlying mechanisms involved in the abnormalities of bone observed in T1D in humans. These translational models have provided targets and pathways that may be modifiable to prevent skeletal complications of T1D.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)318-325
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The current work was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health, R56DK084045 (to J.L.F.) and K08DK124566 (to E.K.); additional funding was provided by the University of Kentucky Barnstable-Brown Diabetes Center and the Barnstable-Brown Chair in Pediatric Diabetes Research.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.


  • Akita mouse
  • fracture
  • histomorphometry
  • microcomputed tomography
  • nonobese diabetic mouse
  • streptozotocin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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