Background: Murine norovirus (MNV) is the most common gastrointestinal pathogen of research mice and can alter research outcomes in biomedical mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Despite indications that an altered microbiota is a risk factor for IBD, the response of the murine intestinal microbiota to MNV infection has not been examined. Microbiota disruption caused by MNV infection could introduce the confounding effects observed in research experiments. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of MNV infection on the intestinal microbiota of wild-type mice. Results: The composition of the intestinal microbiota was assessed over time in both outbred Swiss Webster and inbred C57BL/6 mice following MNV infection. Mice were infected with both persistent and non-persistent MNV strains and tissue-associated or fecal-associated microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA-encoding gene pyrosequencing. Analysis of intestinal bacterial communities in infected mice at the phylum and family level showed no major differences to uninfected controls, both in tissue-associated samples and feces, and also over time following infection, demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota of wild-type mice is highly resistant to disruption following MNV infection. Conclusions: This is the first study to describe the intestinal microbiota following MNV infection and demonstrates that acute or persistent MNV infection is not associated with major disruptions of microbial communities in Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Award no. 5 U01 AI075396 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) to VBY, the University of Michigan T32 Pulmonary training grant to AMN, by a University of Michigan Genetics and Genomics Pilot Feasibility Grant to CEW. MDE was supported by the University of Michigan Experimental Immunology Training Grant (2 T32 AI007413-18). AKP was supported by NIH grants AI084887, and AI054483 to H W Virgin. We thank Cheryl Perkins and Dr Kenneth Henderson at Charles River Laboratories for assistance with MNV PCR and Dr Larissa Thackray for critical reading of the manuscript.
- Murine norovirus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)