Negative symptoms, defect state and Huber's basic symptoms: A comparison of the concepts

Jose de Leon, William H. Wilson, George M. Simpson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Comparing Crow's schizophrenia model with the defect state and Huber's basic symptoms shows that this model is an oversimplification of the complex reality of schizophrenic outcomes. The concept of negative symptoms is undermined by several factors, such as differing definitions, other confounding cross-sectional variables (e.g., akinesia and depression), short follow-ups and lack of confirmation by factorial analysis. The longitudinal concept of a defect state, which has been used in long-term follow-up studies, includes enduring symptoms currently classified as positive and negative. Huber's conceptualization of basic symptoms describes prodromal and enduring residual symptoms of schizophrenia associated with structural brain abnormalities. The overlap and lack of equivalence of these concepts and the limited empirical evidence does not allow firm conclusions. New longitudinal studies using clinical, psychosocial, and neuropsychological measures are needed to understand the natural history and etiology of the defect state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-298
Number of pages22
JournalPsychiatric Quarterly
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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