Non-manipulation quantitative designs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The article describes non-manipulation quantitative designs of two types, correlational and causal comparative studies. Both of these designs are characterized by the absence of random assignment of research participants to conditions or groups and non-manipulation of the independent variable. Without random selection or manipulation of the independent variable, no attempt is made to draw causal inferences regarding relationships between independent and dependent variables. Nonetheless, non-manipulation studies play an important role in rehabilitation research, as described in this article. Examples from the contemporary rehabilitation literature are included.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)255-260
Number of pages6
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2004


  • Causal comparative studies
  • Correlational research
  • Non-manipulation designs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Non-manipulation quantitative designs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this