In this study, we show that seeds of Ilex maximowicziana collected from northern and southern Taiwan differ in germination responses to temperature. Seeds produced by plants growing in the tropical environment of southern Taiwan were more responsive (in a positive way) to higher incubation temperatures than those produced by plants growing in the subtropical environment of northern Taiwan. On the other hand, seeds produced in northern Taiwan were more responsive (in a positive way) to low incubation temperatures and to cold stratification than those from southern Taiwan. Germination percentages and rates of seeds from northern Taiwan were higher at 20/10°C than at 30/20°C, reaching a plateau of >80% germination after 12 weeks incubation, whereas germination of seeds from southern Taiwan reached >80% at 30/20 and 25°C but not at 20/10°C. Gibberellic acid (GA3) increased germination rate but not germination percentage of seeds from both southern and northern Taiwan. Freshly matured seeds of I. maximowicziana have rudimentary embryos. During dormancy break, embryo length increased 11.5- and 8.0-fold in northern and southern seeds, respectively, before radicle emergence. Thus, seeds of Ilex maximowicziana have nondeep simple morphophysiological dormancy. This is the first detailed study of the germination requirements of a subtropical/tropical species of the large cosmopolitan genus Ilex.
|Number of pages||9|
|State||Published - Jan 2011|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments This research was supported by a grant (NSC 97-2313-B-054-003-MY3) from the National Science Council, Taiwan. The authors thank Shi-Chou Hung for assistance with seed collection and Yen-Wei Chang, Chang-Yen Chen, Wen-Yu Hsu, Shu-Ling Wang, and Kai-Chun Yang for technical assistance.
- Cold stratification
- Embryo growth
- Ilex maximowicziana
- Nondeep morphophysiological seed dormancy
- Rudimentary embryo
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics