Noninvasive evaluation of electrical stimulation impacts on muscle hemodynamics via integrating diffuse optical spectroscopies with muscle stimulator

Yu Shang, Yu Lin, Brad A. Henry, Ran Cheng, Chong Huang, Li Chen, Brent J. Shelton, Karin R. Swartz, Sara S. Salles, Guoqiang Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Technologies currently available for the monitoring of electrical stimulation (ES) in promoting blood circulation and tissue oxygenation are limited. This study integrated a muscle stimulator with a diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter to noninvasively quantify muscle blood flow and oxygenation responses during ES. Ten healthy subjects were tested using the integrated system. The muscle stimulator delivered biphasic electrical current to right leg quadriceps muscle, and a custom-made DCS flow-oximeter was used for simultaneous measurements of muscle blood flow and oxygenation in both legs. To minimize motion artifact of muscle fibers during ES, a novel gating algorithm was developed for data acquisition at the time when the muscle was relaxed. ES at 2, 10, and 50Hz were applied for 20min on each subject in three days sequentially. Results demonstrate that the 20-min ES at all frequencies promoted muscle blood flow significantly. However, only the ES at 10Hz resulted in significant and persistent increases in oxy-hemoglobin concentration during and post ES. This pilot study supports the application of the integrated system to quantify tissue hemodynamic improvements for the optimization of ES treatment in patients suffering from diseases caused by poor blood circulation and low tissue oxygenation (e.g., pressure ulcer).

Original languageEnglish
Article number105002
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), under Award Number R21 AR062356 (G.Y.). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.


  • electrical stimulation diffuse correlation spectroscopy muscle blood flow oxygenation motion artifact gating algorithm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials


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