Injection of contrast media is the foundation of invasive and interventional cardiovascular practice. Iodine-based contrast was first used in the 1920s for urologic procedures and examinations. The initially used agents had high ionic and osmolar concentrations, which led to significant side effects, namely nausea, vomiting, and hypotension. Newer contrast agents had lower ionic concentrations and lower osmolarity. Modifications to the ionic structure and iodine content led to the development of ionic low-osmolar, nonionic low-osmolar, and nonionic iso-osmolar contrast media. Contemporary contrast agents are better tolerated and produce fewer major side effects.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Interventional Cardiology Clinics|
|State||Published - Jul 2020|
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.
- Anaphylactoid reactions
- Contrast media
- Preventive treatment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine