(-)-Nornicotine partially substitutes for (+)-amphetamine in a drug discrimination paradigm in rats

M. T. Bardo, R. A. Bevins, J. E. Klebaur, P. A. Crooks, L. P. Dwoskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Rats were trained in a two-lever food-reinforced operant task to discriminate (+)-amphetamine (1 mg/kg) from saline. After discrimination training stabilized, test doses of (+)-amphetamine (0.0625-2.0 mg/kg), (-)-nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), or (-)-nornicotine (1-10 mg/kg) were assessed for their ability to substitute for the (+)-amphetamine training dose during brief test sessions in which food reinforcement was withheld. As expected, as the test dose of (+)-amphetamine increased, there was a dose-related increase in drug-appropriate responding, with both 1 and 2 mg/kg test doses substituting fully for the (+)-amphetamine training dose. Both (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine showed partial substitution (approximately 50% drug-appropriate responding) for the (+)-amphetamine training dose, with (-)-nicotine being more potent than (-)-nornicotine. Rate suppressant effects prevented the assessment of higher doses of (-)-nicotine or (-)-nornicotine. Thus, while (-)-nicotine and (-)-nornicotine share similar discriminative stimulus properties, the mechanism that mediates this effect appears to differ, at least in part, from that activated by (+)-amphetamine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1083-1087
Number of pages5
JournalPharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1997

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by grants from the Tobacco & Health Research Institute (Lexington, KY) and the National Institutes on Health (DA 05312). The expert technical assistance of M. Marion and consultation of J. Rowlett is appreciated.


  • Amphetamine
  • Discrimination stimulus
  • Drug cue
  • Drug discrimination
  • Nicotine
  • Nornicotine
  • Rat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


Dive into the research topics of '(-)-Nornicotine partially substitutes for (+)-amphetamine in a drug discrimination paradigm in rats'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this