Tumor suppressor p53 is known to activate certain sets of genes while suppressing others. However, whether p53 can both activate and suppress the same gene is unclear. To address this question, concentration-dependent p53 effect on the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene was investigated. By transfecting p53 in PC-3 cells, we demonstrate that low concentrations of p53 increase while high concentrations suppress MnSOD expression. The physiological relevance of this effect was determined in vitro and in vivo using combined UVB-mediated activation and small interference RNA-mediated suppression of p53. Results were consistent with the bi-directional effect of p53 on MnSOD expression. MnSOD-promoter/enhancer analysis demonstrates that p53 is suppressive to the promoter activity regardless of the presence or absence of putative p53 binding sites. However, a low level of p53 increases MnSOD gene transcription in the presence of the intronic-enhancer element, and this effect is dependent on nuclear-factor κB (NF-κB) binding sites. Expression of p53 enhances nuclear levels of p65 with corresponding increase in the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB as detected by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Transfection of p65 small interference RNA reduces the positive effect of p53 on MnSOD gene transcription. These data suggest that p65 can overcome the negative effect of p53 on MnSOD expression. However, when the level of p53 was further increased, the suppressive effect of p53 outweighed the positive effect of p65 and led to the suppression of MnSOD gene transcription. These results demonstrated that p53 can both suppress and induce MnSOD expression depending on the balance of promoter and enhancer binding transcription factors.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - Mar 26 2010|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology