3′-Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates and activates members of the AGC protein kinase family and plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. However, how PDK-1 is regulated in cells remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that PDK-1 can shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus. Treatment of cells with leptomycin B, a nuclear export inhibitor, results in a nuclear accumulation of PDK-1. PDK-1 nuclear localization is increased by insulin, and this process is inhibited by pretreatment of cells with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitors. Consistent with the idea that PDK-1 nuclear translocation is regulated by the PI3-kinase signaling pathway, PDK-1 nuclear localization is increased in cells deficient of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10). Deletion mapping and mutagenesis studies unveiled that presence of a functional nuclear export signal (NES) in mouse PDK-1 located at amino acid residues 382 to 391. Overexpression of constitutively nuclear PDK-1, which retained autophosphorylation at Ser-244 in the activation loop in cells and its kinase activity in vitro, led to increased phosphorylation of the predominantly nuclear PDK-1 substrate p70 S6KβI. However, the ability of constitutively nuclear PDK-1 to induce anchorage-independent growth and to protect against UV-induced apoptosis is greatly diminished compared with the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, these findings suggest that nuclear translocation may be a mechanism to sequestrate PDK-1 from activation of the cytosolic signaling pathways and that this process may play an important role in regulating PDK-1-mediated cell signaling and function.
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|Issue number||SUPPL. 2|
|State||Published - Nov 25 2003|
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