Numerical analysis of the dynamic growth of droplets in gas metal arc welding

Y. M. Zhang, E. Liguo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Feedback control of droplet transfer is pursued as a solution to produce sound welds in gas metal arc welding. In previous work, a real-time visual system has been developed to monitor on line the droplet size and geometry. To realize feedback control of metal transfer, this study addresses the dynamic process of droplet growth and detachment. The droplet is subjected to gravitational force, electromagnetic force, plasma drag force and surface tension force. The geometry of the droplet is determined by these forces through the static force balance. However, the forces acting on the droplet continuously change as the melting electrode wire changes the droplet geometry. Because of this interdependence between the droplet geometry and the forces, the model must be solved dynamically and iteratively. A numerical program has been developed to acquire its dynamic numerical solution. Hence, the dynamics of the metal transfer process can be understood and simulated. Currently, this model is being used to simulate the closed-loop controlled metal transfer process using different advanced control technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1247-1258
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2000


  • Droplets
  • Dynamics
  • Gas metal arc welding
  • Numerical analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanical Engineering


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