Occurrence and Distribution of Common Diseases and Pests of U.S. Cannabis: A Survey

Misbakhul Munir, Kimberly Leonberger, Katelyn Kesheimer, Marguerite Bolt, Marion Zuefle, Emma Aronson, Magdalena Ricciardi, Craig Schluttenhofer, David Joly, Henry S. Smith, Jacqueline Coburn, Jose Franco Da Cunha Leme Filho, Silvia I. Rondon, Christine D. Smart, Alyssa Collins, Andrea Garfinkel, Nicole A. Gauthier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Hemp and marijuana, both Cannabis sativa L., are revitalized crops to U.S. agricultural and horticultural industries. Hemp (Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol content < 0.3%) was reintroduced in 2014 under a pilot research program and legalized in 2018. Hemp can now be grown in all 50 states. Marijuana (Δ9-THC content?> 0.3%), although classified as a Schedule I narcotic by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, is legal in 37 states formedical and/or recreational use. Although C. sativa is often promoted as a pest-free crop, multiple diseases and arthropod pests have been identified and confirmed in recent years. There are limited options for control of diseases and pests affecting hemp. A survey of diagnosticians, researchers, and industry leaders conducted from 2021 to 2022 sought to determine the distribution and occurrence of 76 common diseases and pests on C. sativa across the United States. A total of 148 responses were collected and grouped by U.S. region: Western, Great Plains, North Central, Northeastern, and Southern. Survey results suggest that whereas some pathogens and pests are widely distributed across the United States, others occur more frequently in specific regions. This finding may indicate variations in economic importance by region. Results from this survey provide a foundation for regional and national prioritization of research and regulatory activities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)498-507
Number of pages10
JournalPlant Health Progress
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The American Phytopathological Society


  • Cannabis sativa
  • hemp
  • marijuana
  • pathogens
  • research priorities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Plant Science
  • Horticulture


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