Occurrence and distribution of Giardia species in wild rodents in Germany

Yosra A. Helmy, Nastasja G. Spierling, Sabrina Schmidt, Ulrike M. Rosenfeld, Daniela Reil, Christian Imholt, Jens Jacob, Rainer G. Ulrich, Toni Aebischer, Christian Klotz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Giardiasis is an important gastrointestinal parasitic disease in humans and other mammals caused by the protozoan Giardia duodenalis. This species complex is represented by genetically distinct groups (assemblages A-H) with varying zoonotic potential and host preferences. Wild rodents can harbor potentially zoonotic assemblages A and B, and the rodent-specific assemblage G. Other Giardia spp. found in these animals are Giardia muris and Giardia microti. For the latter, only limited information on genetic typing is available. It has been speculated that wild rodents might represent an important reservoir for parasites causing human giardiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of Giardia spp. and assemblage types in wild rodents from different study sites in Germany. Results: Screening of 577 wild rodents of the genera Apodemus, Microtus and Myodes, sampled at eleven study sites in Germany, revealed a high overall Giardia prevalence. Giardia species determination at the SSU rDNA gene locus revealed that Apodemus mice, depending on species, were predominantly infected with one of two distinct G. muris sequence types. Giardia microti was the predominant parasite species found in voles of the genera Microtus and Myodes. Only a few animals were positive for potentially zoonotic G. duodenalis. Subtyping at the beta-giardin (bg) and glutamine dehydrogenase (gdh) genes strongly supported the existence of different phylogenetic subgroups of G. microti that are preferentially harbored by distinct host species. Conclusions: The present study highlights the preference of G. muris for Apodemus, and G. microti for Microtus and Myodes hosts and argues for a very low prevalence of zoonotic G. duodenalis assemblages in wild rodents in Germany. It also provides evidence that G. muris and G. microti subdivide into several phylogenetically distinguishable subgroups, each of which appears to be preferentially harbored by species of a particular rodent host genus. Finally, the study expands the database of sequences relevant for sequence typing of G. muris and G. microti isolates which will greatly help future analyses of these parasites' population structure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number213
JournalParasites and Vectors
Volume11
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 27 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partly supported by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety within the UFOPLAN project FKZ 370941401 to Jens Jacob; by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) through the German Research Platform for Zoonoses (projects FKZ 01KI1018 and FKZ 01KI1303 to RGU; and project FKZ 01KI1019 to TA) and by the German Research Foundation (DFG) (project number 251133687/ GRK 2046) to CK and TA. YAH was funded by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and the Ministry of Higher Education in Egypt. Her current affiliation is in Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, Ohio, USA.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Author(s).

Keywords

  • Giardia spp.
  • Protozoan infection
  • Reservoir
  • Sequence typing
  • Wild rodents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases

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