Occurrence and sequence analysis of porcine deltacoronaviruses in southern China Susanna Lau

Shao Lun Zhai, Wen Kang Wei, Xiao Peng Li, Xiao Hui Wen, Xia Zhou, He Zhang, Dian Hong Lv, Feng Li, Dan Wang

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25 Scopus citations


Background: Following the initial isolation of porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) from pigs with diarrheal disease in the United States in 2014, the virus has been detected on swine farms in some provinces of China. To date, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of PDCoV in southern China where major swine production is operated. Results: To investigate the prevalence of PDCoV in this region and compare its activity to other enteric disease of swine caused by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus group C (Rota C), 390 fecal samples were collected from swine of various ages from 15 swine farms with reported diarrhea. Fecal samples were tested by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) that targeted PDCoV, PEDV, TGEV, and Rota C, respectively. PDCoV was detected exclusively from nursing piglets with an overall prevalence of approximate 1.28 % (5/390), not in suckling and fattening piglets. Interestingly, all of PDCoV-positive samples were from 2015 rather than 2012-2014. Despite a low detection rate, PDCoV emerged in each province/region of southern China. In addition, compared to TGEV (1.54 %, 5/390) or Rota C (1.28 %, 6/390), there were highly detection rates of PEDV (22.6 %, 88/390) in those samples. Notably, all five PDCoV-positive piglets were co-infected by PEDV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) gene sequences of PDCoVs revealed that currently circulating PDCoVs in southern China were more closely related to other Chinese strains of PDCoVs than to those reported in United States, South Korea and Thailand. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PDCoV was present in southern China despite the low prevalence, and supported an evolutionary theory of geographical clustering of PDCoVs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number136
JournalVirology Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 5 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by the grants (No. 2013B060500063, No. 2014B040404061, No. 2016A040401012 and No. 201508020055) from Guangdong Provincial Department of Science and Technology and Guangzhou Science Technology and Innovation Commission, respectively. Moreover, this study was also in part supported by USDA/NIFA 2016-67016-24949 (to D.W.). The funding body was not involved into the design of the study, and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data in the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 The Author(s).


  • Nucleocapsid gene
  • Occurrence
  • Porcine deltacoronavirus
  • Sequence analysis
  • Southern China
  • Spike gene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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