Oleic acid levels regulated by glycerolipid metabolism modulate defense gene expression in Arabidopsis

Aardra Kachroo, Srivathsa C. Venugopal, Ludmila Lapchyk, Deane Falcone, David Hildebrand, Pradeep Kachroo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

150 Scopus citations


Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase-mediated conversion of stearic acid (18:0) to oleic acid (18:1) is a key step, which regulates levels of unsaturated fatty acids in cells. We previously showed that stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-desaturase mutants ssi2/fab2 carrying a loss-of-function mutation in the plastidial glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) acyltransferase (act1) have elevated 18:1 levels and are restored in their altered defense signaling. Because G3P is required for the acylation of 18:1 by G3P acyltransferase, it was predicted that reduction of G3P levels should increase 18:1 levels and thereby revert ssi2-triggered phenotypes. Here we show that a mutation in G3P dehydrogenase restores both salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated phenotypes of ssi2 plants. The G3P dehydrogenase gene was identified by map-based cloning of the ssi2 suppressor mutant rdc8 (gly1-3) and confirmed by epistatic analysis of ssi2 with gly1-1. Restoration of ssi2-triggered phenotypes by the gly1-3 mutation was age-dependent and correlated with the levels of 18:1. Regeneration of G3P pools by glycerol application in ssi2 and ssi2 gly1-3 plants caused a marked reduction in the 18: 1 levels, which rendered these plants hypersensitive to glycerol. This hypersensitivity in ssi2 was rescued by the act1 mutation. Furthermore, overexpression of the ACT1 gene resulted in enhanced sensitivity to glycerol. Glycerol application also lowered the 18:1 content in SS12 plants and converted these into ssi2-mimics. Our results show that 18:1 levels in plastids are regulated by means of acylation with G3P, and a balance between G3P and 18:1 is critical for the regulation of salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated signaling pathways.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5152-5157
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number14
StatePublished - Apr 6 2004


  • Fatty acid
  • Glycerol 3-phosphate
  • Jasmonic acid
  • Salicylic acid
  • Stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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