Omega-3 fatty acids reduce adipose tissue macrophages in human subjects with insulin resistance

Michael Spencer, Brian S. Finlin, Resat Unal, Beibei Zhu, Andrew J. Morris, Lindsey R. Shipp, Jonah Lee, R. Grace Walton, Akosua Adu, Rod Erfani, Marilyn Campbell, Robert E. McGehee, Charlotte A. Peterson, Philip A. Kern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations

Abstract

Fish oils (FOs) have anti-inflammatory effects and lower serum triglycerides. This study examined adipose and muscle inflammatory markers after treatment of humans with FOs and measured the effects of ω-3 fatty acids on adipocytes and macrophages in vitro. Insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects were treated with Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters (4 g/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels were reduced by FO, but the levels of other cytokines were unchanged. The adipose (but not muscle) of FO-treated subjects demonstrated a decrease in macrophages, a decrease in MCP-1, and an increase in capillaries, and subjects with the most macrophages demonstrated the greatest response to treatment. Adipose and muscle ω-3 fatty acid content increased after treatment; however, there was no change in insulin sensitivity or adiponectin. In vitro, M1-polarized macrophages expressed high levels of MCP-1. The addition of ω-3 fatty acids reduced MCP-1 expression with no effect on TNF-α. In addition, ω-3 fatty acids suppressed the upregulation of adipocyte MCP-1 that occurred when adipocytes were cocultured with macrophages. Thus, FO reduced adipose macrophages, increased capillaries, and reduced MCP-1 expression in insulin-resistant humans and in macrophages and adipocytes in vitro; however, there was no measureable effect on insulin sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1709-1717
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes
Volume62
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Omega-3 fatty acids reduce adipose tissue macrophages in human subjects with insulin resistance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this