Omega-3 PUFA and aspirin as adjuncts to periodontal debridement in patients with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus: Randomized clinical trial

Nidia C. Castro dos Santos, Naira M.R.B. Andere, Cássia F. Araujo, Andrea C. de Marco, Alpdogan Kantarci, Thomas E. Van Dyke, Mauro P. Santamaria

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) and low-dose aspirin (ASA) have been proposed as a host modulation regimen to control chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and immunological impact of orally administered ω-3 PUFA and ASA as adjuncts to periodontal debridement for the treatment of periodontitis in patients type 2 diabetes. Methods: Seventy-five patients (n = 25/group) were randomly assigned to receive placebo and periodontal debridement (CG), ω-3 PUFA + ASA (3 g of fish oil/d + 100 mg ASA/d for 2 months) after periodontal debridement (test group [TG]1), or ω-3 PUFA + ASA (3 g of fish oil/d + 100 mg ASA/d for 2 months) before periodontal debridement (TG2). Periodontal parameters and GCF were collected at baseline (t0), 3 months after periodontal debridement and ω-3 PUFA + ASA or placebo for TG1 and CG (t1), after ω-3 PUFA + ASA (before periodontal debridement) for TG2 (t1), and 6 months after periodontal debridement (all groups) (t2). GCF was analyzed for cytokine levels by multiplex ELISA. Results: Ten patients (40%) in TG1 and nine patients (36%) in TG2 achieved the clinical endpoint for treatment (less than or equal to four sites with probing depth ≥ 5 mm), as opposed to four (16%) in CG. There was clinical attachment gain in moderate and deep pockets for TG1. IFN-γ and interleukin (IL)-8 levels decreased over time for both test groups. IL-6 levels were lower for TG1. HbA1c levels reduced for TG1. Conclusion: Adjunctive ω-3 and ASA after periodontal debridement provides clinical and immunological benefits to the treatment of periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1318-1327
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Periodontology
Volume91
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 American Academy of Periodontology

Keywords

  • aspirin
  • diabetes
  • immunomodulation
  • inflammation
  • omega-3 fatty acids
  • periodontitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics

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