On-Line Fault Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Operation of Modular Multilevel Converters –A Comprehensive Review

Jiangbiao He, Qichen Yang, Zheng Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have been one of the most broadly used multilevel converter topologies in industrial applications, particularly in medium-voltage motor drives and high-voltage dc power conversion systems. However, due to the utilization of large amount of semiconductor devices, the reliability of MMCs becomes one of the severe challenges constraining their further development and applications. In this paper, common electrical faults of the MMC have been summarized and analyzed, including open-circuit switching faults, short-circuit switching faults, dc-bus short-circuit faults, and single line-to-ground faults on the ac side. A thorough and comprehensive review of the existing online fault diagnostic methods has been conducted. In addition, fault-tolerant operation strategies for such various fault scenarios in MMCs have been presented. All the fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant operation strategies are comparatively evaluated, which aims to provide a state-of-the-art reference on the MMC reliability for future research and industrial applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)360-372
Number of pages13
JournalCES Transactions on Electrical Machines and Systems
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 CES.


  • Modular multilevel converters
  • diagnosis
  • fault tolerance
  • line-to-ground fault
  • switching open-circuit fault

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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