This paper studies, in detail, a variety of formulations for the hybrid finite-element and boundary-integral (FE-BI) method for three-dimensional (3-D) electromagnetic scattering by inhomogeneous objects. It is shown that the efficiency and accuracy of the FE-BI method depends highly on the formulation and discretization of the boundary-integral equation (BIE) used. A simple analysis of the matrix condition number identifies the efficiency of the different FE-BI formulations and an analysis of weighting functions shows that the traditional FE-BI formulations cannot produce accurate solutions. A new formulation is then proposed and numerical results show that the resulting solution has a good efficiency and accuracy and is completely immune to the problem of interior resonance. Finally, the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is employed to significantly reduce the memory requirement and computational complexity of the proposed FE-BI method.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation|
|State||Published - 1998|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received May 6, 1997; revised October 20, 1997. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-95-1-0848, by a Grant from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research via the MURI Program under Contract F49620-96-1-0025, and by the National Science Foundation under Grant NSF ECE 94-57735.
- Boundary-integral equations
- Electromagnetic scattering
- Finite-element methods
- Nonhomogeneous media
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering