Online interactions and social presence in online learning

Sang Joon Lee, Kun Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


The community of inquiry framework identified three essential elements of cognitive, social, and teaching presences for a successful online learning experience. Among them, social presence is key for developing personal relationships and enhancing collaboration and critical discourse in online courses. This study examined whether providing more time and opportunities for interactions would increase social presence in an online course, and whether social presence would be related to learning outcomes. The findings showed that providing more interaction opportunities during a regular 16-week semester helped students develop higher social presence, group cohesion in particular, in an online course than that in an intensive 5-week online course. However, there was no relationship between social presence and learning outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-128
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Interactive Learning Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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