Charles S. Carver, Michael F. Scheier, Suzanne C. Segerstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1504 Scopus citations


Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)879-889
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Psychology Review
Issue number7
StatePublished - Nov 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Preparation of this article was facilitated by support from the National Cancer Institute ( CA64710 ), the National Science Foundation ( BCS0544617 ), and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ( HL65111 , HL65112 , HL076852 , and HL076858 ).


  • Coping
  • Health
  • Optimism
  • Personality
  • Subjective well-being

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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