Oriented Immobilization of Proteins

Srivatsa V. Rao, Kimberly W. Anderson, Leonidas G. Bachas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

236 Scopus citations


Immobilized enzymes have found numerous applications in analytical, clinical, environmental and industrial chemistry. However, in most cases, immobilization leads to partial or total loss of activity. It is widely believed that the loss in activity is due to attachment of proteins on the immobilization support through several amino acid residues. This results in a random orientation of the immobilized protein and in increased structural deformation due to multi-point attachment. Several researchers have explored ways to orient proteins on surfaces, such that orderly organization, single point attachment and accessibility of the active site (or binding site) are possible. This article reviews the various approaches available to achieve oriented immobilization of proteins and its applications in several disciplines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-143
Number of pages17
JournalMikrochimica Acta
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1998


  • Carbohydrate-mediated immobilization
  • Protein immobilization
  • Protein orientation
  • Site-directed mutagenesis
  • Site-specific immobilization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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