Origin of difference between ū and d̄ partons in the nucleon

Keh Fei Liu, Shao Jing Dong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

138 Scopus citations


Using the Euclidean path-integral formulation for the hadronic tensor, we show that the large difference between ū and d̄ does not come from the disconnected quark-loop insertion. Rather, it can come from the connected (quark line) insertion involving quarks propagating backwards in time. We study the influence of the backward time propagator in the axial-vector and scalar matrix elements in lattice gauge calculations and give an estimate of the violation of the Gottfried sum rule.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1790-1793
Number of pages4
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1994

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (all)


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