Outcomes of People of Color in an Efficacy Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety, Depression, and Related Disorders: Preliminary Evidence

Nicole D. Cardona, Amantia A. Ametaj, Clair Cassiello-Robbins, Julianne Wilner Tirpak, Olenka Olesnycky, Shannon Sauer-Zavala, Todd J. Farchione, David H. Barlow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Although evidence-based psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have strong empirical support for reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, CBT outcome research often does not report race and ethnicity variables, or assess how well CBT works for people from historically excluded racial and ethnic groups. This study presents post hoc analyses comparing treatment retention and symptom outcomes for participants of color (n = 43) and White participants (n = 136) from a randomized controlled efficacy trial of CBT. χ2 tests and one-way ANCOVA showed no observable differences between the two samples on attrition or on clinician-rated measures of anxiety and depression at posttreatment and follow-up. Moderate to large within-group effect sizes on anxiety and depression were found for Black, Latinx, and Asian American participants at almost all time points. These preliminary findings suggest that CBT for anxiety and comorbid depression may be efficacious for Black, Asian American, and Latinx individuals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)711-720
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Dr Barlow reports receiving royalties from Oxford University Press (which includes royalties for all 5 treatment manuals included in this study), Guilford Publications Inc, Cengage Learning, and Pearson Publishing; receiving grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Alcohol and Alcohol Abuse, and Colciencias (Government of Columbia Initiative for Science, Technology, and Health Innovation); serving as a consultant for and receiving honoraria from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Foundation for Informed Medical Decision Making, the Department of Defense, the Renfrew Center, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Universidad Católica de Santa Maria (Arequipa, Peru), New Zealand Psychological Association, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mayo Clinic, and various American universities. Drs Sauer-Zavala and Farchione report receiving royalties from Oxford University Press for one of the treatment manuals included in this study. No other disclosures are reported.

Funding Information:
Funding Information: This work was supported by grant R01 MH090053 from the National Institute of Mental Health and was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01243606 ). The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to support the manuscript for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


  • People of color
  • cognitive behavioral therapy
  • ethnicity
  • race
  • treatment outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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