Ovine smoke/burn ARDS model: A new ventilator-controlled smoke delivery system

Cherry Ballard-Croft, L. Ryan Sumpter, Richard Broaddus, Joseph Alexander, Dongfang Wang, Joseph B. Zwischenberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Background: Our current ovine smoke/burn acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) model utilizes a manual bee smoker. This smoke delivery system lacks standardization and reproducibility, with 20% of sheep failing to meet ARDS criteria. Time to reach ARDS criteria and survival time are also variable. The mild volutrauma (15 mL/kg) applied after smoke/burn injury may also fail to induce ARDS within 24 h. We hypothesized that these inconsistencies were associated with the bee smoker and the mild volutrauma. In the current study, we addressed these problems to improve the consistency of the smoke/burn ARDS model. Methods: Adult female sheep (n = 10) were given a 40% total body surface area third degree cutaneous burn and 48 breaths (4 × 12) of cotton smoke under general anesthesia. A modified ventilator was then used to deliver a precise and consistent smoke volume (tidal volume) to the sheep. Additional barotrauma was induced by pressure control ventilation (40 cm H20). When ARDS criteria (PaO2/FiO2 < 200) were met, the ARDS Network low tidal volume ventilation protocol (6-8 mL/kg ideal body weight) was used. Results: Carboxyhemoglobin levels were 81.4% ± 5.6% immediately following smoke injury. All sheep met ARDS criteria within 24 h (12.5 ± 4.9 h). Mean survival time post-injury was 62.1 ± 26.4 h. White blood cells and granulocytes were significantly elevated at 24 h post-smoke/burn injury. Lung tissue at necropsy was consistent with ARDS. Conclusions: The refinements made to the original ovine smoke/burn ARDS model produce a more reliable time to ARDS onset, injury severity, and time of death.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e155-e162
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 2010

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge support for this study by NIH grant HL065030 and Johnston-Wright Endowment , University of Kentucky , Department of Surgery .


  • acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • barotrauma
  • burn injury
  • respiratory failure
  • sheep
  • smoke inhalation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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