Oxidatively-modified and glycated proteins as candidate pro-inflammatory toxins in uremia and dialysis patients

M. Piroddi, I. Depunzio, V. Calabrese, C. Mancuso, C. M. Aisa, L. Binaglia, A. Minelli, A. D. Butterfield, F. Galli

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients accumulate blood hallmarks of protein glycation and oxidation. It is now well established that these protein damage products may represent a heterogeneous class of uremic toxins with pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant properties. These toxins could be directly involved in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory syndrome and vascular complications, which are mainly sustained by the uremic state and bioincompatibility of dialysis therapy. A key underlying event in the toxicity of these proteinaceous solutes has been identified in scavenger receptor-dependent recognition and elimination by inflammatory and endothelial cells, which once activated generate further and even more pronounced protein injuries by a self-feeding mechanism based on inflammation and oxidative stress-derived events. This review examines the literature and provides original information on the techniques for investigating proteinaceous pro-inflammatory toxins. We have also evaluated therapeutic - either pharmacological or dialytic - strategies proposed to alleviate the accumulation of these toxins and to constrain the inflammatory and oxidative burden of ESRD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)573-592
Number of pages20
JournalAmino Acids
Volume32
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2007

Keywords

  • AGEs
  • Dialysis
  • Glycation
  • Inflammation
  • Nitric oxide
  • Oxidation
  • Protein damage
  • Proteomics
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Uremia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry

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