P-FLUX: A phosphorus budget dataset spanning diverse agricultural production systems in the United States and Canada

M. R. Williams, P. Welikhe, J. Bos, K. King, M. Akland, D. Augustine, C. Baffaut, E. G. Beck, A. Bierer, D. D. Bosch, E. Boughton, C. Brandani, E. Brooks, A. Buda, M. Cavigelli, J. Faulkner, G. Feyereisen, A. Fortuna, J. Gamble, B. HanrahanM. Hussain, M. Kohmann, J. Kovar, B. Lee, A. Leytem, M. Liebig, D. Line, M. Macrae, T. Moorman, D. Moriasi, N. Nelson, A. Ortega-Pieck, D. Osmond, O. Pisani, J. Ragosta, M. Reba, A. Saha, J. Sanchez, M. Silveira, D. Smith, S. Spiegal, H. Swain, J. Unrine, P. Webb, K. White, H. Wilson, L. Yasarer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Quantifying spatial and temporal fluxes of phosphorus (P) within and among agricultural production systems is critical for sustaining agricultural production while minimizing environmental impacts. To better understand P fluxes in agricultural landscapes, P-FLUX, a detailed and harmonized dataset of P inputs, outputs, and budgets, as well as estimated uncertainties for each P flux and budget, was developed. Data were collected from 24 research sites and 61 production systems through the Long-term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network and partner organizations spanning 22 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. The objectives of this paper are to (a) present and provide a description of the P-FLUX dataset, (b) provide summary analyses of the agricultural production systems included in the dataset and the variability in P inputs and outputs across systems, and (c) provide details for accessing the dataset, dataset limitations, and an example of future use. P-FLUX includes information on select site characteristics (area, soil series), crop rotation, P inputs (P application rate, source, timing, placement, P in irrigation water, atmospheric deposition), P outputs (crop removal, hydrologic losses), P budgets (agronomic budget, overall budget), uncertainties associated with each flux and budget, and data sources. Phosphorus fluxes and budgets vary across agricultural production systems and are useful resources to improve P use efficiency and develop management strategies to mitigate environmental impacts of agricultural systems. P-FLUX is available for download through the USDA Ag Data Commons (https://doi.org/10.15482/USDA.ADC/1523365).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)451-461
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Environmental Quality
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to thank the technicians and support staff across contributing sites for their efforts in collecting, analyzing, and compiling the data used in the study. This work is a contribution of the Long‐term Agroecosystem Research (LTAR) network. LTAR is supported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The U.S. Department of Agriculture prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable, sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, political beliefs, reprisal, or because all or part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance program. (Not all prohibited bases apply to all programs.) USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Journal of Environmental Quality published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-food Canada. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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