Parameter Identification for Cells, Modules, Racks, and Battery for Utility-Scale Energy Storage Systems

Oluwaseun M. Akeyo, Vandana Rallabandi, Nicholas Jewell, Aron Patrick, Dan M. Ionel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The equivalent circuit model for utility-scale battery energy storage systems (BESS) is beneficial for multiple applications including performance evaluation, safety assessments, and the development of accurate models for simulation studies. This paper evaluates and compares the performance of utility-scale equivalent circuit models developed at multiple sub-component levels, i.e. at the rack, module, and cell levels. This type of modeling is used to demonstrate that the equivalent circuit model for a reference cell, module, or rack of a BESS can be scaled to represent the entire battery system provided that the battery management system (BMS) is active and functional. Contrary to the rapid pulse discharge cycles employed in conventional cell parameter estimation approaches, the study proposes a new charge/discharge cycle for identifying the equivalent circuit parameters for utility-scale battery systems using equipment readily available at installation sites without the need for laboratory setups. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis for classifying and quantifying the effect of each equivalent circuit parameter on the performance of the proposed battery system model was executed. The measurements and simulations are conducted for a 1MW/2MWh BESS testing facility located at the Louisville Gas and Electric and Kentucky Utilities (LGE and KU) E.W. Brown generating plant. The results indicate that for the example utility-scale battery setup with an active BMS, the equivalent circuit model of either the cell, module, or rack can be scaled to represent the battery system with less than 1% average voltage error.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9262921
Pages (from-to)215817-215826
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • Battery energy storage systems
  • battery management system
  • cells
  • equivalent circuit
  • modules
  • parameter estimation
  • racks
  • sensitivity analysis
  • thermal runaway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (all)
  • Materials Science (all)
  • Engineering (all)


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