PARIS and SPARTA: Finding the Achilles' Heel of SARS-CoV-2

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18 Scopus citations


To understand reinfection rates and correlates of protection for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), we established eight different longitudinal cohorts in 2020 under the umbrella of the PARIS (Protection Associated with Rapid Immunity to SARS-CoV-2)/SPARTA (SARS SeroPrevalence And Respiratory Tract Assessment) studies. Here, we describe the PARIS/SPARTA cohorts, the harmonized assays and analysis that are performed across the cohorts, as well as case definitions for SARS-CoV-2 infection and reinfection that have been established by the team of PARIS/SPARTA investigators. IMPORTANCE Determining reinfection rates and correlates of protection against SARSCoV-2 infection induced by both natural infection and vaccination is of high significance for the prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, understanding reinfections or infection after vaccination and the role immune escape plays in these scenarios will inform the need for updates of the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and help update guidelines suitable for the postpandemic world.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Simon et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • antibodies
  • cohort study
  • reinfection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology


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