Parton distributions and lattice QCD calculations: A community white paper

Huey Wen Lin, Emanuele R. Nocera, Fred Olness, Kostas Orginos, Juan Rojo, Alberto Accardi, Constantia Alexandrou, Alessandro Bacchetta, Giuseppe Bozzi, Jiunn Wei Chen, Sara Collins, Amanda Cooper-Sarkar, Martha Constantinou, Luigi Del Debbio, Michael Engelhardt, Jeremy Green, Rajan Gupta, Lucian A. Harland-Lang, Tomomi Ishikawa, Aleksander KusinaKeh Fei Liu, Simonetta Liuti, Christopher Monahan, Pavel Nadolsky, Jian Wei Qiu, Ingo Schienbein, Gerrit Schierholz, Robert S. Thorne, Werner Vogelsang, Hartmut Wittig, C. P. Yuan, James Zanotti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

195 Scopus citations


In the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), parton distribution functions (PDFs) quantify how the momentum and spin of a hadron are divided among its quark and gluon constituents. Two main approaches exist to determine PDFs. The first approach, based on QCD factorization theorems, realizes a QCD analysis of a suitable set of hard-scattering measurements, often using a variety of hadronic observables. The second approach, based on first-principle operator definitions of PDFs, uses lattice QCD to compute directly some PDF-related quantities, such as their moments. Motivated by recent progress in both approaches, in this document we present an overview of lattice-QCD and global-analysis techniques used to determine unpolarized and polarized proton PDFs and their moments. We provide benchmark numbers to validate present and future lattice-QCD calculations and we illustrate how they could be used to reduce the PDF uncertainties in current unpolarized and polarized global analyses. This document represents a first step towards establishing a common language between the two communities, to foster dialogue and to further improve our knowledge of PDFs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-160
Number of pages54
JournalProgress in Particle and Nuclear Physics
StatePublished - May 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.


  • Global QCD fits
  • Lattice QCD
  • Unpolarized/polarized parton distribution functions (PDFs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics


Dive into the research topics of 'Parton distributions and lattice QCD calculations: A community white paper'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this