Patterns and Determinants of Breast and Cervical Cancer Non-Screening Among Appalachian Women

Nancy E. Schoenberg, Christina R. Studts, Jenna Hatcher-Keller, Eliza Buelt, Elwanda Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Breast and cervical cancer account for nearly one-third of new cancer cases and one-sixth of cancer deaths. Cancer, the second leading cause of all deaths in the United States, will claim the lives of nearly 800,000 women this year, which is particularly unfortunate because effective modes of early detection could significantly reduce mortality from breast and cervical cancer. Researchers examined patterns of non-screening among Appalachian women. In-person interviews were conducted with 222 Appalachian women who fell outside of screening recommendations for timing of Pap tests and mammograms. These women, from six Appalachian counties, were participating in a group-randomized, multi-component trial aimed at increasing adherence to cancer screening recommendations. Results indicated that participants who were rarely or never screened for breast cancer were also likely to be rarely or never screened for cervical cancer. In addition, four key barriers were identified as independently and significantly associated with being rarely or never screened for both cervical and breast cancer. An improved understanding of cancer screening patterns plus the barriers underlying lack of screening may move researchers closer to developing effective interventions that facilitate women's use of screening.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)552-571
Number of pages20
JournalWomen and Health
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 2013

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Received November 27, 2012; revised May 17, 2013; accepted May 22, 2013. Support for this research was provided by the National Institutes of Health/National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R24 MD002757: Schoenberg). Support was also provided to Dr. Studts by the University of Kentucky’s Center for Clinical and Translational Science (UL1TR000117: Kern). Address correspondence to Nancy E. Schoenberg, PhD, University of Kentucky, 125 College of Medicine Office Bldg., Lexington, KY 40536. E-mail:


  • Appalachian region
  • breast cancer
  • cervical cancer
  • early detection of cancer
  • health status disparities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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