Peel and Cleavage Strength Characteristics of Adhesive versus Welded Connections

Junwon Seo, Ibin Amatya, Todd Letcher, Eunsoo Choi, Woosuk Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper was intended to examine the peel and cleavage characteristics of adhesive and welded connections in a dynamic message sign (DMS). A total of 30 peel specimens and 30 cleavage specimens were fabricated with different widths, conditioned with various extreme temperatures, and tested to determine their peel and cleavage strengths following the relevant ASTM International guidelines. The effects of temperature and width on the peel and cleavage strength were evaluated by interpreting the test data in a graphical and statistical manner. Response surface metamodels (RSMs) acquired from the statistical analysis of testing data were also employed to create three-dimensional surface plots that served as the basis to efficiently explore the effects of temperature and width on each strength. The RSM plots revealed that the peel strength of both adhesive and welded specimens and the cleavage strength of adhesive specimens were observed to be affected most by temperature, whereas the influence of width was observed to be higher for the peel strength of adhesive and welded specimens along with the cleavage strength of welded specimens. From the peel and cleavage strength testing, the welded specimens were found to be more resilient than the adhesive specimens in terms of peel strength, but to have up to 31% lower cleavage strength compared to the adhesive specimens.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04022088
JournalJournal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The contents of this paper reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented herein. The authors wish to acknowledge the support provided by Dan Bierschbach, John Syrstad, Toby Pulscher, Jeff Haliburton, and Eric Johns at Daktronics for their financial support, valuable suggestions, and insight for this project. This research was funded by Daktronics and the United States DOT through Mountain-Plains Consortium–University Transportation Center. This paper does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers.


  • Adhesive
  • Cleavage
  • Dynamic message sign (DMS)
  • Peel
  • Strength
  • Weld

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science (all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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