Periodontitis and gestational diabetes mellitus: Exploring the link in NHANES III

Karen F. Novak, George W. Taylor, Dolphus R. Dawson, James E. Ferguson, M. John Novak

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    48 Scopus citations


    Objectives: The authors hypothesized that women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy would exhibit more severe periodontal disease than controls without a history of diabetes during pregnancy. Methods: Data from NHANES III provided information for 4,244 women ages 20-59. One hundred and thirteen had a history of GDM (GDM+), while 4,131 had no history of diabetes before or during their pregnancies (GDM-). Women were further classified by the presence or absence of diabetes mellitus (DM+ or DM-) at the time of their NHANES III examination. Periodontal disease (PD) was defined as one or more teeth with one or more sites with probing depth ≥4mm, loss of attachment ≥2mm, and bleeding on probing. Results: The PD prevalence among women who were GDM+DM- was 9.0% and 4.8% for those who were GDM-DM-. - PD prevalence for women who were GDM+DM+ was 30.5% and 11.6% for GDM-DM+ subjects, respectively. A logistic regression model, controlling for age, calculus, smoking, and income estimated women who were GDM+DM+ were more likely to have periodontal disease than women who were GDM-DM- and women who were GDM-DM+. The GDM+DM- group also tended to be more likely to have PD than the GDM-DM- and GDM-DM+ groups. However, the odds ratios were not statistically significant. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy may be at greater risk for developing more severe periodontal disease than pregnant women without GDM.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)163-168
    Number of pages6
    JournalJournal of Public Health Dentistry
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - 2006


    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Gestational diabetes mellitus
    • Periodontal disease

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General Dentistry
    • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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