Phage-antibiotic synergy against daptomycin-nonsusceptible MRSA in an ex vivo simulated endocardial pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model

Ashlan J.Kunz Coyne, Callan Bleick, Kyle Stamper, Razieh Kebriaei, Arnold S. Bayer, Susan M. Lehman, Michael J. Rybak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Phage-antibiotic combinations (PAC) offer a potential solution for treating refractory daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. We examined PAC activity against two well-characterized DNS MRSA strains (C4 and C37) in vitro and ex vivo. PACs comprising daptomycin (DAP) ± ceftaroline (CPT) and a two-phage cocktail (Intesti13 + Sb-1) were evaluated for phage-antibiotic synergy (PAS) against high MRSA inoculum (109 CFU/mL) using (i) modified checkerboards (CB), (ii) 24-h time-kill assays (TKA), and (iii) 168-h ex vivo simulated endocardial vegetation (SEV) models. PAS was defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration ≤0.5 in CB minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or a ≥2 log10 CFU/mL reduction compared to the next best regimen in time-kill assays and SEV models. Significant differencesdifferencesdifferencesbetween regimens were assessed by analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc modifi cation (α = 0.05). CB assays revealed PAS with Intesti13 + Sb-1 + DAP ± CPT. In 24-h time-kill assays against C4, Intesti13 + Sb-1 + DAP ± CPT demonstrated synergistic activity (-Δ7.21 and -Δ7.39 log10 CFU/mL, respectively) (P < 0.05 each). Against Intesti13 + Sb-1 + CPT ± DAP was equally effective (-Δ7.14 log10 CFU/mL each) and not significantly different from DAP + Intesti13 + Sb-1 ((-Δ6.65 log10 CFU/mL). In 168-h SEV models against C4 and C37, DAP ± CPT + the phage cocktail exerted synergistic activities, significantly reducing bio-burdens to the detection limit [2 log10 CFU/g (-Δ7.07 and -Δ7.11 log10 CFU/g, respectively)] (P < 0.001). At 168 h, both models maintained stable MICs, and no treatment-emergent phage resistance occurred with DAP or DAP + CPT regimens. The two-phage cocktail demonstrated synergistic activity against two DNS MRSA isolates in combination with DAP + CPT in vitro and ex vivo. Further in vivo PAC investigations are needed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2024 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


  • antibiotics
  • bacteriophage
  • daptomycin-nonsusceptible
  • MRSA
  • synergy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


Dive into the research topics of 'Phage-antibiotic synergy against daptomycin-nonsusceptible MRSA in an ex vivo simulated endocardial pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this