PHarmacist Avoidance or Reductions in Medical Costs in CRITically Ill Adults: PHARM-CRIT Study

Megan A. Rech, Payal K. Gurnani, William J. Peppard, Keaton S. Smetana, Megan A. Van Berkel, Drayton A. Hammond, Alexander H. Flannery

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively classify interventions performed by ICU clinical pharmacists and quantify cost avoidance generated through their accepted interventions. DESIGN: A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed between August 2018 and January 2019. SETTING: Community hospitals and academic medical centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: ICU clinical pharmacists. INTERVENTIONS: Recommendations classified into one of 38 intervention categories (divided into six unique sections) associated with cost avoidance. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Two-hundred fifteen ICU pharmacists at 85 centers performed 55,926 interventions during 3,148 shifts that were accepted on 27,681 adult patient days and generated $23,404,089 of cost avoidance. The quantity of accepted interventions and cost avoidance generated in six established sections was adverse drug event prevention (5,777 interventions; $5,822,539 CA), resource utilization (12,630 interventions; $4,491,318), individualization of patient care (29,284 interventions; $9,680,036 cost avoidance), prophylaxis (1,639 interventions; $1,414,465 cost avoidance), hands-on care (1,828 interventions; $1,339,621 cost avoidance), and administrative/supportive tasks (4,768 interventions; $656,110 cost avoidance). Mean cost avoidance was $418 per intervention, $845 per patient day, and $7,435 per ICU pharmacist shift. The annualized cost avoidance from an ICU pharmacist is $1,784,302. The potential monetary cost avoidance to pharmacist salary ratio was between $3.3:1 and $9.6:1. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist involvement in the care of critically ill patients results in significant avoidance of healthcare costs, particularly in the areas of individualization of patient care, adverse drug event prevention, and resource utilization. The potential monetary cost avoidance to pharmacist salary ratio employing an ICU clinical pharmacist is between $3.3:1 and $9.6:1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E0594
JournalCritical Care Explorations
Volume3
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 10 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.

Keywords

  • cost
  • medical care
  • medication
  • pharmacist
  • safety
  • value

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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