Phenotype discrimination: Outcomes based on race, disability status and gender in the United States

Keith B. Wilson, Tamara Hinojosa Escamilla, Jason E. Gines

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


While discrimination may take several forms in many parts of the world, phenotype discrimination (e.g., overt features and/or behaviors) is a concept that influences the experiences of many groups who are not as valued when compared to the perceived positive norms of the United States (e.g., being White American, able-bodied). Compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., Black Hispanics and African Americans with disabilities tend to be accepted less for Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) services when compared to their White American counterparts. Furthermore, empirical evidence suggests that phenotype discrimination among people with visible disabilities is more likely to have a negative self-concept when compared to people who report non-visible disabilities. Lastly, phenotype research based on gender suggests that Latina women who have lighter skin are less likely to advertise using alcohol than Latina women who have a darker skin. Implications for the human services are discussed regarding phenotype discrimination based on skin color, the overtness of disability, and gender.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Sociology Research
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9781536113587
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2010 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Social Sciences


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