Photovoltaic performance of lead-iodide perovskite solar cells fabricated under ambient air conditions with HTM solution excluding LiTFSI

Hojjatollah Sarvari, Xiaohui Wang, Yafei Wang, Peng Zhang, Shibin Li, Vijay P. Singh, Zhi Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted a great deal of interest because of their potential low cost and high efficiency. However, in most publications, solar cells were fabricated in a highly controlled environment (glove boxes). To reduce the production cost, it is suggested to fabricate PSCs under ambient air conditions; however, some of the materials are highly sensitive to the humidity of ambient air conditions. Lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (LiTFSI) is one of these materials that usually is used as a dopant in hole-conductor solutions. In this paper, we have studied the performance of PSCs fabricated under ambient air conditions without using LiTFSI in hole transport material (HTM) solutions. This means we have stored the materials, prepared the solutions, and fabricated the devices all under ambient air conditions. In this work, spin-coating speed for deposition of the HTM layer, HTM solution preparation, the effect of HTM exposure to air and light, and the repetitive measurement of cells are investigated. We found that exposure of samples to air and light is both crucial for fabrication of solar cells with larger current density and better fill factor. These results are important toward fabrication of low-cost high-efficiency PSCs under ambient air conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1051-1057
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received April 28, 2018; accepted May 14, 2018. Date of publication June 14, 2018; date of current version June 19, 2018. This work was supported in part by the Advanced Semiconductor Processing Technology LLC, in part by the China Scholarship Council, and in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 61421002, 61574029, and 61371046. (Corresponding author: Hojjatollah Sarvari.) H. Sarvari and V. P. Singh are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 USA (e-mail:,;

Publisher Copyright:
© 2011-2012 IEEE.


  • Ambient air conditions
  • lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-imide (LiTFSI)
  • perovskite solar cell (PSC)
  • two-step spin-coating

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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