Phylogenomic analysis of a 55.1-kb 19-gene dataset resolves a monophyletic fusarium that includes the fusarium solani species complex

David M. Geiser, Abdullah M.S. Al-Hatmi, Takayuki Aoki, Tsutomu Arie, Virgilio Balmas, Irene Barnes, Gary C. Bergstrom, Madan K. Bhattacharyya, Cheryl L. Blomquist, Robert L. Bowden, Balazs Brankovics, Daren W. Brown, Lester W. Burgess, Kathryn Bushley, Mark Busman, Jose F. Cano-Lira, Joseph D. Carrillo, Hao Xun Chang, Chi Yu Chen, Wanquan ChenMartin Chilvers, Sofia Chulze, Jeffrey J. Coleman, Christina A. Cuomo, Z. Wilhelm de Beer, G. Sybren de Hoog, Johanna Del Castillo-Munera, Emerson M. Del Ponte, Javier Dieguez-Uribeondo, Antonio Di Pietro, Veronique Edel-Hermann, Wade H. Elmer, Lynn Epstein, Akif Eskalen, Maria Carmela Esposto, Kathryne L. Everts, Sylvia P. Fernandez-Pavıa, Gilvan Ferreira da Silva, Nora A. Foroud, Gerda Fourie, Rasmus J.N. Frandsen, Stanley Freeman, Michael Freitag, Omer Frenkel, Kevin K. Fuller, Tatiana Gagkaeva, Donald M. Gardiner, Anthony E. Glenn, Scott E. Gold, Thomas R. Gordon, Nancy F. Gregory, Marieka Gryzenhout, Josep Guarro, Beth K. Gugino, Santiago Gutierrez, Kim E. Hammond-Kosack, Linda J. Harris, Monika Homa, Cheng Fang Hong, Laszlo Hornok, Jenn Wen Huang, Macit Ilkit, Adriaana Jacobs, Karin Jacobs, Cong Jiang, Marıa del Mar Jimenez-Gasco, Seogchan Kang, Matthew T. Kasson, Kemal Kazan, John C. Kennell, Hye Seon Kim, H. Corby Kistler, Gretchen A. Kuldau, Tomasz Kulik, Oliver Kurzai, Imane Laraba, Matthew H. Laurence, Theresa Lee, Yin Won Lee, Yong Hwan Lee, John F. Leslie, Edward C.Y. Liew, Lily W. Lofton, Antonio F. Logrieco, Manuel S. Lopez-Berges, Alicia G. Luque, Erik Lysøe, Li Jun Ma, Robert E. Marra, Frank N. Martin, Sara R. May, Susan P. McCormick, Chyanna McGee, Jacques F. Meis, Quirico Migheli, N. M.I. Mohamed Nor, Michel Monod, Antonio Moretti, Diane Mostert, Giuseppina Mule, Françoise Munaut, Gary P. Munkvold, Paul Nicholson, Marcio Nucci, Kerry O’Donnell, Matias Pasquali, Ludwig H. Pfenning, Anna Prigitano, Robert H. Proctor, Stephane Ranque, Stephen A. Rehner, Martijn Rep, Gerardo Rodrıguez-Alvarado, Lindy Joy Rose, Mitchell G. Roth, Carmen Ruiz-Roldan, Amgad A. Saleh, Baharuddin Salleh, Hyunkyu Sang, Marıa Mercedes Scandiani, Jonathan Scauflaire, David G. Schmale, Dylan P.G. Short, Adnan Sisic, Jason A. Smith, Christopher W. Smyth, Hokyoung Son, Ellie Spahr, Jason E. Stajich, Emma Steenkamp, Christian Steinberg, Rajagopal Subramaniam, Haruhisa Suga, Brett A. Summerell, Antonella Susca, Cassandra L. Swett, Christopher Toomajian, Terry J. Torres-Cruz, Anna M. Tortorano, Martin Urban, Lisa J. Vaillancourt, Gary E. Vallad, Theo A.J. van der Lee, Dan Vanderpool, Anne D. van Diepeningen, Martha M. Vaughan, Eduard Venter, Marcele Vermeulen, Paul E. Verweij, Altus Viljoen, Cees Waalwijk, Emma C. Wallace, Grit Walther, Jie Wang, Todd J. Ward, Brian L. Wickes, Nathan P. Wiederhold, Michael J. Wingfield, Ana K.M. Wood, Jin Rong Xu, Xiao Bing Yang, Tapani Yli-Mattila, Sung Hwan Yun, Latiffah Zakaria, Hao Zhang, Ning Zhang, Sean X. Zhang, Xue Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Scientific communication is facilitated by a data-driven, scientifically sound taxonomy that considers the end-user’s needs and established successful practice. In 2013, the Fusarium community voiced near unanimous support for a concept of Fusarium that represented a clade comprising all agriculturally and clinically important Fusarium species, including the F. solani species complex (FSSC). Subsequently, this concept was challenged in 2015 by one research group who proposed dividing the genus Fusarium into seven genera, including the FSSC described as members of the genus Neocosmospora, with subsequent justification in 2018 based on claims that the 2013 concept of Fusarium is polyphyletic. Here, we test this claim and provide a phylogeny based on exonic nucleotide sequences of 19 orthologous protein-coding genes that strongly support the monophyly of Fusarium including the FSSC. We reassert the practical and scientific argument in support of a genus Fusarium that includes the FSSC and several other basal lineages, consistent with the longstanding use of this name among plant pathologists, medical mycologists, quarantine officials, regulatory agencies, students, and researchers with a stake in its taxonomy. In recognition of this monophyly, 40 species described as genus Neocosmospora were recombined in genus Fusarium, and nine others were renamed Fusarium. Here the global Fusarium community voices strong support for the inclusion of the FSSC in Fusarium, as it remains the best scientific, nomenclatural, and practical taxonomic option available.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1064-1079
Number of pages16
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
12Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Peoria, IL 61604, U.S.A. 13Sydney Institute of Agriculture, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia 14Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, U.S.A. 15Mycology Unit and IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili Medical School, Reus, Spain 16Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Wimauma, FL 33598, U.S.A. 17Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 18Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan 19State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China 20Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, U.S.A. 21Research Institute on Mycology and Mycotoxicology, National Scientific and Technical Research Council, National University of Rio Cuarto, Rio Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina 22Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, U.S.A. 23Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, U.S.A. 24Department of Medical Mycology and Infectious Diseases, Center of Expertise in Mycology, Radboud University Medical Center, Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands 25Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A. 26Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Vic¸osa, Vic¸osa, Brazil 27Department of Mycology, Real Jardín Botánico CSIC, Madrid, Spain 28Departamento de Genética, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, Universidad de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain 29French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE), Dijon, France 30Department of Plant Pathology and Ecology, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT 06504, U.S.A. 31Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milano, Milan, Italy 32Wye Research and Education Center, University of Maryland, Queenstown, MD 21658, U.S.A. 33Laboratorio de Patología Vegetal, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Tarímbaro, Michoacán 58880, México 34Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental, Manaus, Brazil 35Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 4B1, Canada 36Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark 37Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion, Israel 38Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, U.S.A. 39Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, U.S.A. 40Laboratory of Mycology and Phytopathology, All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection, St. Petersburg-Pushkin, Russia 41CSIRO Agriculture and Food, St. Lucia, Australia 42Toxicology and Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Athens, GA 30605, U.S.A. 43Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, DE 19716, U.S.A. 44Department of Genetics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa 45Unitat de Microbiologia, Departament de Ciències Mèdiques Bàsiques, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain 46Department of Molecular Biology, Universidad de Leon, Leon, Spain 47Department of Biointeractions and Crop Protection, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, United Kingdom 48Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6, Canada 49MTA-SZTE Fungal Pathogenicity Mechanisms Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary 50Institute of Plant Protection, Szent István University, Godollo, Hungary 51Division of Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, University of C¸ukurova, Sarõc¸am, Adana, Turkey 52Biosystematics Unit, Plant Health and Protection, Agricultural Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa 53Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa 54College of Plant Protection, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Xianyang, People’s Republic of China 55Division of Plant and Soil Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, U.S.A. 56Biology Department, St. Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63101, U.S.A. 57USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, U.S.A. 58Department of Botany and Nature Protection, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Olsztyn, Poland 59German National Reference Center for Invasive Fungal Infections NRZMyk, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell Institute, Jena, Germany 60Australian Institute of Botanical Science, Royal Botanic Garden and Domain Trust, Sydney, Australia 61Microbial Safety Team, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rural Development Administration, Wanju, Republic of Korea 62Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea 63Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, U.S.A. 64Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Research National Council, Bari, Italy 65Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Centro de Referencia de Micología, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Rosario, Argentina 66Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Høgskoleveien, Ås, Norway 67Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, U.S.A. 68Crop Improvement and Protection Research Unit, ARS-USDA, Salinas, CA 93905, U.S.A. 69Dipartimento di Agraria and Nucleo Ricerca Desertificazione, Universitàdegli Studi di Sassari, Sassari, Italy 70School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia 71Laboratoire de Mycologie, Service de Dermatologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland 72Department of Plant Pathology, Stellenbosch University, Matieland, South Africa 73Brussels, Belgium 74Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, U.S.A. 75Department of Crop Genetics, John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom 76Hospital Universitário, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 77Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, University of Milano, Milan, Italy 78Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil 79Institut Hospitalier Universitaire Méditerranée Infection, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France 80Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD 20705, U.S.A. 81Swammerdam Institute for Life Science, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 82Department of Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, U.S.A. 83Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia 84Department of Integrative Food, Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Republic of Korea 85Centre de Recherche et de Formation Agronomie, Haute Ecole Louvain en Hainaut, Montignies-sur-Sambre, Belgium 86School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, U.S.A. 87Amycel/Spawn Mate, San Juan Bautista, CA 95045, U.S.A. 88Department of Ecological Plant Protection, University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany 89School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, U.S.A. 90Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, NY 13902, U.S.A. 91Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, U.S.A. 92Agroécologie, AgroSup Dijon, INRAE, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Dijon, France 93Life Science Research Center, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan 94Department of Plant Pathology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546, U.S.A. 95Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, U.S.A. 96Department of Botany and Plant Biotechnology, University of Johannesburg, Auckland Park, South Africa 97Department of Microbial Biochemical and Food Biotechnology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa 98DOE Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94702. 99Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, U.S.A. 100Department of Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, U.S.A. 101Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, U.S.A. 102Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Turku, Finland 103Department of Medical Biotechnology, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea 104Department of Plant Biology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, U.S.A. 105Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, U.S.A.

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) National Program for Food Safety, the National Science Foundation (grant DEB-1655980), and Pennsylvania State Agricultural Experiment Station Project 4655. This is contribution no. 21-022-J from the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. I. Laraba was supported through the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The American Phytopathological Society


  • Evolution
  • Fungal pathogens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


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