Physical examination instruction in US pharmacy curricula

Mandy Jones, Yevgeniya Gokun, Jeff Cain, Frank Romanelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Compare physical examination instruction and competency expectations between US pharmacy schools. Methods: Pharmacy Practice Department Chairs or their equivalents at all US pharmacy schools were surveyed regarding physical exam instruction and evaluation within their respective curricula. Opinions were also gathered regarding physical exam competency expectations and the need to formally evaluate this skill prior to graduation and for purposes of US licensure and federal healthcare provider recognition. The survey instrument was pretested prior to dissemination. Results: The survey response rate was 56%. Instructional and assessment methods used in teaching and evaluating physical exam skills were similar among responding US pharmacy programs. However, there is variability in the extent of physical exam instruction and evaluation as well as opinions related to physical exam competency expectations prior to graduation and for purposes of US pharmacy licensure and federal healthcare provider credentialing. Overall, 83% of programs require students to demonstrate correct exam techniques via a competency exam; however, only 52% of schools require students to apply physical findings to therapeutic decision-making. Respondents from new schools were more likely to support formal competency evaluation of physical exam skills via objective structured clinical exam for purposes of US licensure and healthcare provider credentialing compared to established schools (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Differences in competency expectations and the extent of physical exam instruction and evaluation in US pharmacy schools illustrate the need for a minimum national standard for this pharmacy practice skill.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-347
Number of pages8
JournalCurrents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2014

Keywords

  • Healthcare provider
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacy curricula
  • Physical examination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • Pharmacy

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