Physical properties and organoleptic evaluation of gluten-free bread from proso millet

Joseph Woomer, Manjot Singh, Paul Priyesh Vijayakumar, Akinbode Adedeji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: Gluten-free (GF) foods have gained momentum among consumers due to an increase in incidence and awareness of gluten sensitivity and intolerance. Millet is a GF grain with nutritive qualities comparable to other cereals. However, it was not clear how millet-based GF products would be accepted, leading to the goal of this research. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of formulation on physical properties and consumer preference of millet-based GF bread. Design/methodology/approach: Three bread formulations were used: proso millet flour (100 percent), proso millet flour–corn starch (1:1), and proso millet flour–potato starch (1:1). Physical and sensory properties were statistically evaluated. Findings: Starch addition to the bread formulation had a significant influence on bread volume, color and firmness. A consumer’s age, gluten intolerance and familiarity with millet products did influence the frequency of consumption of GF products. Gluten-intolerant panelists consumed GF products more often than others who are not. Older panelists reported consuming more GF products than younger panelists. Gender also had a significant effect on consumers’ preference for overall acceptability and crumb aroma. The formulation had a significant effect on consumers’ preference of crust color and crumb aroma. Practical implications: The paper presents an understanding of how starch addition modulates bread properties for the GF market. Originality/value: In this paper, the authors explored a novel approach to use different starches and proso millet for making GF bread and determined sensory responses based on demographics like age, celiac diagnosis and familiarity with GF foods. This vital information will help processors to determine the portion of the market to target and the formulation to explore further.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-560
Number of pages14
JournalBritish Food Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 2 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The information reported in this paper is a project of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and it was supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, US Department of Agriculture, Hatch- Multistate project No. 1007893. The authors also recognize the funding support of the University of Kentucky Food Connection Student Opportunity Grants program.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited.


  • Celiac disease
  • Gluten intolerance
  • Gluten-free bread
  • Proso millet
  • Starches

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Business, Management and Accounting (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Physical properties and organoleptic evaluation of gluten-free bread from proso millet'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this