Physical vapor deposition and thermally induced faceting of tungsten nanoparticles

Huanhuan Bai, Tyler L. Maxwell, Martin E. Kordesch, T. John Balk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Nanoscale tungsten particles have attracted an increasing level of interest recently. In the current study, tungsten nanoparticles were fabricated utilizing physical vapor deposition and deposited on sapphire (α-Al2O3) substrates. The particles generated using this procedure were found to form a network with a continuous nanoporous structure. To study the influence of temperature and pressure on the stability and morphology of tungsten nanoparticles, a multitude of varying pre-heating steps were applied to these nanoscale tungsten particles in a vacuum chamber. The morphology and structure of the annealed tungsten particles were investigated by a series of materials characterization techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The tungsten nanoparticles grew into nonuniform islands when annealed directly at 1100 °C, under a pressure of 10−7 Torr. Conversely, the deposited tungsten network transformed into individual, highly faceted nanoparticles when first pre-heated at an intermediate temperature, followed by annealing at 1100 °C, under a pressure of 10−7 Torr. Wulff analysis indicated that these well-developed tungsten particles exhibit {110} crystallographic facets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112724
JournalMaterials Characterization
StatePublished - Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023


  • Annealing
  • Characterization
  • Faceting
  • Nanoparticles
  • Physical vapor deposition
  • Tungsten

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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