The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the physicochemical and functional properties of a bean like product made from cold extrusion of sorghum, soy and wheat flours. Formulated samples comprised of sorghum (25–70%), wheat (0–35%) and soy (30–50%) flours. The degree of gelatinization ranged from 54.1 to 93.6%. Pasting curves showed minimal starch damage with peak and final viscosities in the range of 456.0–1138.5 and 297–584 cP, respectively. Textural properties of the extrudates were significantly impacted by starch content and cooking time. There was significant cooking loss due to poor binding properties of the extrudates. Cooking the product for 30 min after 2 h soaking gave comparable hardness to cooked navy bean. Texture profile analysis showed that mostly starch-based ingredients contributed to hardness and cohesiveness, while formulations high in protein showed increased adhesiveness and gumminess. Practical Applications: This study addressed a major gap in access to sufficient nutrient in navy beans, a common staple, the processability subject, and offers a novel approach to addressing them. Beans are common staple in many regions where malnutrition is prevalent, and some types of beans take long to cook to a texture acceptable due to changes during storage. Reforming beans using extrusion allows manipulation of ingredients that can help to address deficiencies in nutrient, flatulence and the “hard to cook” characteristics seen in some beans. Bean analog, as we refer to extruded bean in this study, is a major mechanism for nutrient delivery which has the potential to help address macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies in diets of people where beans is a staple.
|Journal||Journal of Food Process Engineering|
|State||Published - Apr 1 2017|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank Kansas Grain Sorghum Commission and the International Science Education (ISE) program of the United States Department of Agriculture for funding support. We also thank operations staff in the Kansas State University Extrusion Lab, Eric Maichel and Trevor Huppert, for their assistance in pilot-scale extrusion experiments.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Chemical Engineering (all)