Physisorption of Oxygen in SnO2 Nanoparticles for Perovskite Solar Cells

Waseem Ahmad, Detao Liu, Waqas Ahmad, Yafei Wang, Peng Zhang, Ting Zhang, Hualin Zheng, Zhi D. Chen, Shibin Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Although SnO2 is widely used in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) as the electron transport layer, there is still a need for a detailed investigation regarding the impact of physisorption on the performance of PSCs. Here, we report the role of physisorption of oxygen species from the ambient atmosphere in the oxidation states and defective oxides at the surface of SnO2 nanoparticles for the performance of PSCs. The SnO2 nanoparticle's thin film shows a higher oxidation state (Sn-O) and lower charge trap sites at an annealing temperature of 100 °C, and the SnO2 film based PSCs yield an efficiency of 18.04%. The annealing process results in the gradual desorption of physically adsorbed oxygen species. Therefore, the annealing process of SnO2 nanoparticle thin films in atmosphere is the key factor to control the oxidation states and defective oxides at the surface of SnO2 nanoparticle thin films.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8534422
Pages (from-to)200-206
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received July 9, 2018; revised September 27, 2018; accepted October 15, 2018. Date of publication November 14, 2018; date of current version December 21, 2018. This work was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grants 61421002, 61574029, 61471085, 61474015 and in part by the University of Kentucky. (Corresponding author: Shibin Li.) W. Ahmad, D. Liu, W. Ahmad, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, T. Zhang, H. Zheng, and S. Li are with the State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054, China (e-mail:,;; 321emem@gmail. com;;;;;

Publisher Copyright:
© 2011-2012 IEEE.


  • Electron transport layer (ETL)
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
  • oxidation states
  • oxygen adsorption
  • perovskite solar cells (PSCs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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