PLD Protein–Protein Interactions With Signaling Molecules and Modulation by PA

J. Gomez-Cambronero, A. J. Morris, K. M. Henkels

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We describe methods for studying phospholipase D (PLD) interactions with signaling proteins and modulation of these interactions by the PLD reaction product, phosphatidic acid (PA). PLD is fundamental to the physiological maintenance of cellular/intracellular membranes, protein trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics, membrane remodeling, cell proliferation, meiotic division and sporulation. PA is an acidic phospholipid involved in the biosynthesis of many other lipids that affects the enzymatic activities of many different signaling proteins via protein–lipid interactions or as a substrate. The involvement of PLD as an effector of protein–protein interactions and downstream signaling via PA-mediated processes has led to the investigation of PA-binding domains in target protein partners. We present here data and protocols detailing the interaction between PLD2–Rac2 interaction and modulation of this interaction by PA. We describe biochemical techniques to measure interactions between PLD, PA, and the small GTPase Rac2, which are associated in the cell. We found two maxima concentrations of PA that contributed to association or dissociation of Rac2 with PLD2, as well as the PLD2 lipase and guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activities. Fluctuations in the Rac2–PLD2 protein–protein binding interaction facilitate shuttling of Rac2 and/or PLD2 within the cell dependent on local cellular PA concentration. Fluorescence resonance emission transfer stoichiometry for PLD2 and Rac2 binding yielded a 3:1 ratio of Rac2:PLD2. Detection of PA in mammalian cells with a new biosensor showed colocalization in and around the nucleus. We also described methods for quantitation of PA in biological materials by HPLC electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Enzymology
Number of pages31
StatePublished - 2017

Publication series

NameMethods in Enzymology
ISSN (Print)0076-6879
ISSN (Electronic)1557-7988

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier Inc.


  • GEF
  • PABD
  • Phosphatidic acid
  • Phospholipase D
  • Rac2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


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