Population genomic analysis reveals geographic structure and climatic diversification for Macrophomina phaseolina isolated from soybean and dry bean across the United States, Puerto Rico, and Colombia

Viviana Ortiz, Hao Xun Chang, Hyunkyu Sang, Janette Jacobs, Dean K. Malvick, Richard Baird, Febina M. Mathew, Consuelo Estévez de Jensen, Kiersten A. Wise, Gloria M. Mosquera, Martin I. Chilvers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Macrophomina phaseolina causes charcoal rot, which can significantly reduce yield and seed quality of soybean and dry bean resulting from primarily environmental stressors. Although charcoal rot has been recognized as a warm climate-driven disease of increasing concern under global climate change, knowledge regarding population genetics and climatic variables contributing to the genetic diversity of M. phaseolina is limited. This study conducted genome sequencing for 95 M. phaseolina isolates from soybean and dry bean across the continental United States, Puerto Rico, and Colombia. Inference on the population structure using 76,981 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) revealed that the isolates exhibited a discrete genetic clustering at the continental level and a continuous genetic differentiation regionally. A majority of isolates from the United States (96%) grouped in a clade with a predominantly clonal genetic structure, while 88% of Puerto Rican and Colombian isolates from dry bean were assigned to a separate clade with higher genetic diversity. A redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to estimate the contributions of climate and spatial structure to genomic variation (11,421 unlinked SNPs). Climate significantly contributed to genomic variation at a continental level with temperature seasonality explaining the most variation while precipitation of warmest quarter explaining the most when spatial structure was accounted for. The loci significantly associated with multivariate climate were found closely to the genes related to fungal stress responses, including transmembrane transport, glycoside hydrolase activity and a heat-shock protein, which may mediate climatic adaptation for M. phaseolina. On the contrary, limited genome-wide differentiation among populations by hosts was observed. These findings highlight the importance of population genetics and identify candidate genes of M. phaseolina that can be used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underly climatic adaptation to the changing climate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1103969
JournalFrontiers in Genetics
Volume14
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 Ortiz, Chang, Sang, Jacobs, Malvick, Baird, Mathew, Estévez de Jensen, Wise, Mosquera and Chilvers.

Keywords

  • charcoal rot
  • climate change
  • genotype–environment associations
  • landscape genetics
  • pathogen adaptation
  • phylogenomics
  • redundancy analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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