Post-dispersal embryo development, germination phenology, and seed dormancy in Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii (Liliaceae s. str.), a perennial herb of the broadleaved deciduous forest in Japan

Tetsuya Kondo, Chihiro Sato, Jerry M. Baskin, Carol C. Baskin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations

Abstract

In an investigation of seed germination in Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, embryos in fresh seeds in October were underdeveloped and did not grow until September of the following year. Then, they grew rapidly and had fully elongated by early November. In the second spring after dispersal, radicles emerged under snow in late March and after snowmelt in April. Cotyledons emerged soon after radicles. In several laboratory experiments, embryos grew at 15°/5°C (light 12 h/ dark 12 h) following 25°/15°C. Radicles emerged from seeds with fully elongated embryos at 5°-15°C after cold stratification at 0°-5°C. Cotyledons emerged in 2 wk from seeds with a radicle at 15°/5°C to 30°/20°C. Although seeds require c. 18-19 mo after dispersal to germinate in nature, under controlled conditions, they required only 9 mo with a sequence of 25°/15°C → 15°/5°C → 0°-5°C → 15°/5°C. This is practical knowledge for propagation of plants from seeds. GA3 treatment partially substituted for the high temperature requirement. Based on dormancy-breaking requirements, the seeds have deep simple morphophysiological dormancy (MPD). A literature review of seed dormancy in taxa of Liliaceae s. str. showed that phylogenetic position in this case is not a good predictor of level of MPD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)849-859
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Botany
Volume93
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2006

Keywords

  • Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii
  • Deep simple morphophysiological dormancy
  • Gibberellic acid
  • Seed germination phenology
  • Temperature requirement for dormancy break
  • Underdeveloped embryo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science

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